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What is HTML & CSS?

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 What is HTML & CSS?

           Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) serves as the fundamental cornerstone of the internet, powering every website and webpage visible on our screens. It's the language that structures the digital landscape we interact with daily, from social media giants like Facebook to online shopping platforms such as Google, Yahoo, and Amazon. HTML, when paired with CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), forms the core duo of web development, akin to two sides of a coin. Just as a coin loses its essence without both faces, HTML without CSS appears as a raw framework waiting for its aesthetic touch.

To delve into the underlying HTML code of any webpage, one can easily access it through web browsers like Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Apple Safari, Opera Mini, Parle Moon, or Brave Browser by right-clicking and selecting 'View Page Source'. This reveals the foundational codes shaping the webpage's structure.

Types of H.T.M.L






What is HTML Editor?

These software tools, similar to MS Word, function as webpage editors under the WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) principle. They streamline the coding process by automatically managing the initial and final sections of required code. Additionally, they offer drag-and-drop functionalities, allowing users to intuitively design elements by simply dragging and dropping with the mouse. However, the core intelligence behind their operation stems from the user's planning and conceptualization. With a well-devised plan in mind for code input, it's entirely feasible to craft a complete webpage even using basic notepad software.


Basic HTML Code: HTML Boilerplate

 <DOCTYPE html>

<html lang="en">

<html> start

<head> head start

<meta charset="UTF-8">

<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">

<meta http-equiv="X-UA-Compatible" content="ie=edge">

<title>HTML 5 Boilerplate</title>


<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/style.css">

<title>I am the webpage title</title>

</head> head end


<body> body start


<div id=header> start

<h1>I am the webpage header</h1>

</div> header end

<div id=content> start

<p>this is a paragraph</p>

</div> content end

</div> <!--this is an html comments-->


<script src="/index.js">

This is a javascript file linking code lines like Bootstrap



</body> body end


</html> html end


Upon completion, it's crucial to save this content, emphasizing the importance of naming the file 'home.html' or 'index.html'. The significance lies in recognizing where the file is stored, as it won't appear as a typical file but as an icon representing internet browser software like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Internet Explorer. This initial file marks the inception of a webpage! Upon double-clicking, you'll encounter a simplistic display – just two lines: one stating 'I am the header of the web page' and the other 'This is a paragraph.' This embodies the fundamental essence of website creation. It's akin to the camera focusing from behind the movie screen, where inputting content in the backend manifests into a visual front-end, mirroring the cinematic experience on the screen.


HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the backbone of web development, comprising various elements like tags, attributes, and properties that define the structure and content of a webpage.

Tags in HTML are fundamental markers used to enclose and define different types of content. They come in pairs, an opening tag, denoted by <tagname>, and a closing tag, denoted by </tagname>, encapsulating content between them. For instance, <p> represents the opening paragraph tag, while </p> signifies its closure.

Attributes provide additional information to HTML elements, enhancing their functionality or appearance. They're included within the opening tag and consist of a name and a value, separated by an equal sign. For instance, the <a> (anchor) tag utilizes attributes like href to define the hyperlink's destination or target to specify where the linked document should open.

Properties, on the other hand, are more commonly associated with JavaScript and CSS. In HTML, properties aren't explicitly defined within the markup language itself. Instead, they're used in conjunction with other web technologies like JavaScript to manipulate HTML elements dynamically. CSS employs properties to modify the appearance and layout of HTML elements, controlling aspects like color, size, positioning, and more.

HTML, with its assortment of tags, attributes, and their associated properties, allows developers to create structured and visually appealing web content. Understanding these components is crucial for building well-organized and functional web pages, ensuring proper layout, accessibility, and interactivity on the internet.

Advanced HTML represents a cornerstone in the realm of web design and development, fostering the creation of dynamic, interactive, and visually engaging web content. This language, constituting the structure of web pages, extends beyond the basics of HTML, delving into sophisticated techniques, elements, and integrations that enhance user experience and functionality.

At an advanced level, HTML encompasses a plethora of features such as the integration of multimedia elements using the <video> and <audio> tags, enabling seamless inclusion of videos, audio, and animations directly into web pages. Additionally, the <canvas> element empowers developers to render graphics, visualizations, and interactive animations through JavaScript.

Moreover, the advent of HTML5 introduced semantic elements like <article>, <section>, <header>, <footer>, and <nav>. These elements not only aid in structuring content but also facilitate accessibility and search engine optimization by providing clearer indications of a webpage's layout and hierarchy.

The prowess of advanced HTML extends to forms and input validation, leveraging attributes like required, pattern, and placeholder for enhanced user interaction and error prevention. Furthermore, the use of the <details> and <summary> tags allows developers to create collapsible sections, fostering a more compact and organized display of content.

Advanced HTML also intertwines with CSS and JavaScript to craft responsive, mobile-friendly designs through media queries, enabling web content to adapt seamlessly across various devices and screen sizes. This amalgamation paves the way for a more immersive and accessible browsing experience for users.

In the realm of server education, understanding advanced HTML goes hand in hand with comprehending server-side scripting languages like PHP, Python, or Node.js. Integration with server-side technologies allows for dynamic content generation, database interaction, and personalized user experiences.

Ultimately, mastering advanced HTML not only involves a deep understanding of its intricacies but also necessitates a holistic approach, incorporating CSS, JavaScript, and server-side scripting for comprehensive web development expertise, ensuring the creation of robust, scalable, and user-centric web solutions.

HTML, despite being a fundamental building block of the web, comes with its limitations and disadvantages, influencing the way content is structured, displayed, and accessed on the internet.

One of the primary limitations of HTML lies in its static nature. Traditional HTML lacks the ability to dynamically update content without manual intervention. This inherent limitation restricts real-time interactivity, compelling users to refresh the webpage to view updated information, resulting in a less seamless user experience.

Another drawback of HTML is its limited design capabilities. While HTML offers structural elements, it lacks the extensive styling features present in CSS (Cascading Style Sheets). Design aspects such as complex layouts, animations, and intricate visual effects are challenging to achieve with HTML alone, necessitating the use of additional technologies like CSS and JavaScript.

Accessibility poses another challenge within HTML. Despite progress in introducing semantic elements, ensuring comprehensive accessibility for users with disabilities remains a complex task. HTML might not inherently address all accessibility requirements, demanding developers to meticulously implement ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) attributes and follow best practices for inclusive design.

Furthermore, cross-browser compatibility issues persist with HTML. Different web browsers may interpret HTML code differently, leading to inconsistencies in rendering and functionality across various platforms and devices. This often requires developers to employ workarounds and additional code to ensure consistent display and functionality, increasing development time and complexity.

Security vulnerabilities also pose a concern in HTML-based applications. HTML, being a markup language, is susceptible to certain security threats like cross-site scripting (XSS) attacks and injection vulnerabilities. Developers need to implement strict security measures and adhere to best practices to mitigate these risks effectively.

Lastly, HTML alone cannot manage complex data and logic. While it can structure content, HTML lacks the capability for server-side processing or complex computations. To address this limitation, integration with server-side scripting languages like PHP, Python, or JavaScript frameworks like Node.js becomes essential, expanding HTML's functionality for handling dynamic data and logic.

CSS, the styling language, functions much like Photoshop in designing webpage aesthetics. While CSS codes usually remain separate from HTML, they come together to breathe life into the page, akin to adding muscles, facial features, and defining characteristics to an otherwise ghostly HTML structure.

Web design hinges on the synergy between HTML and CSS, and while Java and PHP power dynamic functionality, their codes often remain hidden on servers, with their results showcased through HTML + CSS amalgamation. In essence, nearly all other programming languages rely on HTML + CSS for web presentation.

For those eager to learn web design, a pivotal resource is www.w3cschool.com. This website offers comprehensive tutorials on HTML, CSS, and various programming languages crucial for web development, all available completely free of charge.

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) stands as an integral companion to HTML in web development, profoundly shaping the visual presentation, layout, and overall aesthetic appeal of web content. The relationship between CSS and HTML is symbiotic, creating a harmonious partnership that empowers developers to craft stunning and dynamic web experiences.

HTML, as the backbone of web pages, primarily focuses on structuring content and defining its meaning through various elements and tags. However, HTML alone lacks the finesse to control design aspects such as colors, fonts, layout, spacing, and visual effects.

This is where CSS comes into play. CSS acts as a styling language that complements HTML by providing a separate set of rules and instructions. It allows developers to precisely dictate the appearance and behavior of HTML elements, enhancing the presentation and user experience. Through CSS, developers can alter the look and feel of multiple web pages by modifying a single style sheet.

The integration of CSS with HTML is achieved through selectors, properties, and values. Selectors target specific HTML elements, classes, or IDs, allowing developers to apply styling rules selectively. Properties define the visual attributes to be modified, such as color, font size, margin, padding, and more. Values assigned to properties determine the specific characteristics of the elements, like blue for color or 20px for size.

The use of CSS simplifies the maintenance of web projects by separating content (HTML) from presentation (CSS). This separation of concerns enhances code readability, scalability, and efficiency, enabling easier updates and modifications without altering the underlying HTML structure.

CSS also facilitates responsiveness and adaptability in web design through media queries. With media queries, developers can create responsive designs that adapt to various screen sizes and devices, ensuring optimal viewing experiences across desktops, tablets, and mobile phones.

Moreover, CSS frameworks and preprocessors further streamline the styling process, offering pre-written code snippets, classes, and tools to expedite development and maintain consistency across projects.

In essence, the relationship between CSS and HTML is indispensable in web development. CSS empowers developers to breathe life into HTML content, transforming it from a mere structural layout to a visually compelling and user-friendly experience, elevating the standards of modern web design.


Basic CSS Code:





margin: 0px;



background-color: orange;

background-image: URL("/img/matriximg.jpg");

background-attachment: fixed;

background-repeat: no-repeat;

background-position: center;



float: left;

margin: auto;


height: auto;

background: transparent;


Save style.css by writing it like this: style.css

Basic Elements:
These are fundamental HTML elements styled using CSS, such as <div>, <span>, <p>, <h1> to <h6>, <a>, <img>, etc.
Class Selectors: Denoted by a dot (e.g., .classname), allowing developers to apply styles to specific classes.
ID Selectors: Denoted by a hash symbol (e.g., #idname), used to target unique elements.
Attribute Selectors: Target elements based on specific attributes (e.g., [attribute=value]).
Pseudo-classes and Pseudo-elements:
Pseudo-classes: Include : hover, : focus, : active, :nth-child(), :first-child, :last-child, etc., used to define styles based on element states or positions.
Pseudo-elements: Like ::before, ::after, ::first-line, and ::first-letter, used to style specific parts of elements.
Properties and Values:
Text Properties: color, font family, font size, text-align, text-decoration, etc., for styling text content.
Box Model Properties: margin, padding, border, width, height, box-shadow, border-radius, etc., to control layout and spacing.
Flexbox and Grid Properties: display: flex, flex-direction, justify-content, align-items, grid-template-columns, grid-gap, etc., for advanced layout control.
Transitions and Animations:
Transitions: transition-property, transition-duration, transition-timing-function, transition-delay, enabling smooth property changes.
Animations: @keyframes, animation-name, animation-duration, animation-timing-function, animation-delay, animation-iteration-count, animation-fill-mode, offering complex animations.
Responsive Design:
Media Queries: Using @media to apply styles based on device characteristics like screen size, orientation, resolution, etc.
Vendor Prefixes and Experimental Features:
Vendor Prefixes: Used for experimental or browser-specific properties (e.g., -WebKit-, -Moz-, -ms-, -o-) to ensure compatibility.
CSS, with its wide array of elements, extensions, and capabilities, forms the backbone of modern web styling. This overview showcases the diversity and richness of CSS, allowing developers to craft visually stunning and responsive web experiences.


                                              To be continued...



Read 2008 times Last modified on Tuesday, 16 January 2024 18:21

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